Thrombosis – a serious blood problem
Myocardial infarction, stroke – these frightening diseases are often the result of thrombosis. A feature of these diseases is that they are striking all the younger people every year. And everything begins with damage to the mechanisms regulating blood clotting. Thrombosis is a blood coagulation in the lumen of the veins or arteries, which leads to a circulatory disorder in the tissues and even to death (necrosis) of fabrics. A healthy person has no conditions for the formation of thromboms due to the coordinated work of all interested systems (nervous, endocrine, coagulating and antoslude).
Thrombosis always begins with damage to the walls of blood vessels, which leads to a change in the homeostasis system (the body’s ability to maintain the moving constancy of the inner medium and the stability of the main physiological functions) and slowing the blood current. The walls of the vessels can be damaged as a result of injuries, infections, allergic reactions, stress (walls of vessels are damaged as a result of the release of adrenaline, norepinephrine and cortisol – stress hormones), atherosclerosis, etc.D.
Another condition for the formation of thrombus is a violation of the homeostasis system, which leads to a predominution state (thrombophilia). Thrombophilia occurs due to changes in one or more components of blood clotting, for example, increasing the number of platelets (they contribute to blood coagulation), blood coagulation factors, reduce the activity of the anticular system.
Masives and impaired blood flow rate with simultaneous spasm (compression) of blood vessels. So, more frequent formation of blood clots in the veins is due to the fact that the blood in them is moving slower. Significant in the formation of thrombosis have such factors such as obesity Obesity: a disease of well-being? , Injuries, Elderly Age, Oncological, Allergic Cardiovascular Diseases.
Stages of the formation of thrombus
There are several stages of thrombosis:
- I Stage – damage to the vessel wall, which causes a local violation of the blood coagulation system;
- Stage II – the sticking of platelets to the damaged section of the vessel wall;
- III Stage – cluster and gluing platelets at the place of damage to the vascular wall;
- IV stage – thrombin formation, which turns the soluble blood fibrinogen protein into insoluble fibrin, in the threads of which thrombocytes and other blood cells are delayed, the thrombus begins;
- V stage – retraction (seduction with serum selection) Trombus – Trombus compacted.
In terms of thrombosis of the arteries, the most important factor contributing to the formation of a thrombus is injury, during veins thrombosis – increased coagulation and blood flow. When thrombosis of small blood vessels, decisive factors are the change in blood composition and its intravascular coagulation.
Structure of thrombov
In relation to the lumen of the vessel distinguish between the onset clomes and the vessel closing the entire clearance. On the structure, white, red, mixed (layered) and hyaline thrombus are isolated.
White thrombus consist mainly of their fibrin, platelets and leukocytes. Such a thrombus has a white or gray color and is usually closed. White thrombus is formed slowly, under conditions of a fairly fast blood flow in arteries (for example, atherosclerosis).
Red thrombus is formed with a quick blood coagulation under conditions of slowing down blood flow, it usually closes the entire clearance of the vessel and is more often formed in veins (for example, in varicose veins). Fresh thrombus has a red color, which over time goes into brown and slightly loose, it contains a large number of red blood cells defining its color.
Mixed (layered) thrombus consists of elements of white and red thrombov, it may occur both in the arteries and in the veins. Typically, such a thrombus has a head (white thrombus), a neck and middle part (alternation of white and red thrombus) and the tail (red thrombus), which is located in the direction of the blood current, is attached loose, so it can be broken down and clog out remote vessels (thromboembolism).
Hyalin (capillary) clomes are usually located in small blood vessels and consist of fibrin, other plasma proteins and platelets.
Triches of thrombov
Distinguish localized and progressive blood clots. Localized thrombles are located mainly in the arteries and occupy a limited area, for example, at the atherosclerotic plaque. Progressive (increasing) thrombus meet mainly in the venous system.
Special types of thromboms are Marantic (arising in exhaustion conditions, with dehydration), tumor (with a turbulence of tumor tissue) and septic (when inflammation of veins walls – thrombophlebitis).
Complications of thrombosis
The blockage of the vessel Trombum causes a violation of the blood supply to fabrics, which in turn causes them necrosis (death). Trombus in the field of blood vessels feeding the heart muscle may result in myocardial infarction, in the brain area – to stroke and t.D.
Trombo or part of it can break away and go to the "independent swimming" on the blood vessels, it is very dangerous, because the blockage of the vessel can occur – thromboembolism. Often, thromboembolism is a consequence of the varicose veins and thrombosis of the lower extremities. The most dangerous complication – the pulmonal artery thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery – the deadly bunch of blood, which can cause the instant death of the patient.
Violation of the body’s ability to maintain the moving constancy of the internal environment and the stability of the main physiological functions is a serious state that requires surveys and long-term treatment under the supervision of a doctor.